In an Oracle Database we can mention following auditing types:
  • Mandatory Auditing
  • Standard Auditing
  • Fine-Grained Auditing
  • SYS Auditing
Mandatory Auditing causes database start-up/shut-down and SYSDBA-SYSOPER login logout information to be written into AUDIT_FILE_DEST. This auditing cannot be turned off and it's always written into operating system directory specified with AUDIT_FILE_DEST.

Standard Auditing is controlled with AUDIT_TRAIL parameter. (NONE,OS,DB,DB_EXTENDED,XML,XML_EXTENDED)
When DB or DB_EXTENDED is used, audit records are written into database (aud$ table). (Not the mandatory auditing records, they're always on OS)
XML options write to operating system in XML format.
When *EXTENDED is used SQLBIND and SQLTEXT information is included in the audit trail. If not used, not included.
By default, Standard Auditing audits SQL statements which use following privileges:
ALTER ANY PROCEDURE | CREATE ANY LIBRARY | DROP ANY TABLE | ALTER ANY TABLE | CREATE ANY PROCEDURE | DROP PROFILE | ALTER DATABASE | CREATE ANY TABLE | DROP USER | ALTER PROFILE | CREATE EXTERNAL JOB | EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY | ALTER SYSTEM | CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK | GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE | ALTER USER | CREATE SESSION | GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE | AUDIT SYSTEM | CREATE USER | GRANT ANY ROLE | CREATE ANY JOB | DROP ANY PROCEDURE
It's possible to audit Statements, Privileges and Objects with Standard Auditing. For example:
  • Privilege auditing: audit select any table; 
  • Statement auditing: audit select table; 
  • Object auditing: audit select on SCOTT.SALARY;
Following views give information about current Standard Auditing configuration in the database:
  • DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS; ==> describes current statements being audited across the system
  • DBA_PRIV_AUDIT_OPTS; ==> describes current system privileges being audited across the system
  • DBA_OBJ_AUDIT_OPTS;   ==> describes auditing options for all objects 
You can use the SQL "AUDIT" statement to set auditing options regardless of the setting of AUDIT_TRAIL parameter. However, Oracle Database does not generate audit records until you enable Standard Auditing using AUDIT_TRAIL parameter.
Auditing to OS offers higher performance when compared with DB. 

Fine-Grained Auditing is used to audit operations like: 
  • Accessing a table outside of normal working hours 
  • Logging in from a particular IP address 
  • Selecting or updating a particular table column
DBMS_FGA package is used to manage Fine-Grained Auditing. DBA_AUDIT_POLICIES view describes all fine-grained auditing policies in the database.
It's not mandatory to enable Standard Auditing in order to use Fine-Grained Auditing or SYS Auditing.
SYS AuditingAUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS parameter (TRUE/FALSE) enables or disables the auditing of SQL statements that directly issued by users connected with SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges (SQL statements run from within PL/SQL procedures or functions are not audited). These audit records are written into OS.
It's not mandatory to enable Standard Auditing in order to use SYS Auditing.




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